- ; . - , - . , . ,, , , , , , , . - , . 1856 , , ( , ), , 8 - 9 . , . , , , ( ) 6. 2 , 10 8 . , , , - . - , ; , ( , ., 30 . {Teufelskammer}) , , ax, , , .., , . ( ), () (, , ., ) . ( ), , ( 200 ) ; - 73,5 (); ( ); ( ); ; - ( , , 1100 - 1200 . ). , , , ( - rachitis), (malumsenile), , , . , , . , . , , , . , Homo, . , , , , , ( ) , , .. . , , , , ., (Spy) ( , 1886 . , , , , , , ). , . , , - - Pithecanthropos erectus; , - , . . Tuhlrott, "Der fossile Menschaus dem Neanderthal" (, 1865); Schaffhausen, "Muller's Archiv"(1858, . 453) "Der Neanderthaler Fund" (., 1888); Spengel,"Schadel vom Neanderthaltypus" ( "Archiv fur Anthr.", VIII, 1875);Quatrefages et Homy, "Crania Ethnica"; Carter - Blake, "On the Neanderth. Scull" ( "Journal ot the Anthr. Soc."II, 1864); Virchow, "Verhandlungen d. Berl. Anthr. Gesellschaft"(1872); Fraipont et Lohest, "La race hum. de Neanderthal" (, 1887) .


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